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Manager Speech Part IV

There are over 700 different skeletal muscles in the horse. The Central Nervous System

sends a signal to the muscles via nerves which then convert chemical energy into movement

and the muscles, which are highly elastic and have strong contractile powers, react accordingly.

The function of skeletal muscle is to:

- support the skeleton and create movement

 -maintain joint stability and posture

- control range of movement

 -protect the skeleton and internal organs from trauma

 -contribute to thermoregulation by shivering.

Skeletal muscle in horses has high capacity in saving glycogen and high amounts of glucose

parsers and tight compressed strings (type 2). It seems in horses, like other mammals, insulin

is the primary mediator in transferring glucose to the muscles and adipose tissue. It has been

proved that Glucose transporter protein type 4(GLUT4) is active in horse skeletal muscle and-

adipose tissue. Light exercises increase carbohydrate and cause presence of GLUT4 in skeletal

muscles. Lipase lipoprotein(LPL) in adipose tissue and muscles is the mediator of triglycerides

and fatty acids releasing for tissue performance. In other mammals, insulin activates LPL and

blood triglyceride releasing facilitates after feeding. The effect of insulin on LPL is unknown in

horses, but adaptation with oily rations follows with LPL activity increasing.  Fatty acid transporting

proteins such as fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) regulate entrance of fatty acids to skeletal muscles

and adipose tissue.

The presence of FAT/CD36 in horse skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue has been 
demonstrated. It should be noted that insulin susceptibility is a common term which indicates 
insulin mediated ejection of glucose and insulin ability to control blood glucose. Insulin susceptibility 
represents the condition which the proportion of insulin concentration with glucose fails. The severity 
of insulin susceptibility in horses depends to physiological condition and the strain of horse. 
Insulin susceptibility is very high in foals and decreases after weaning and in maturity and is lower in 
horses older than 20 years comparing with younger horses. Insulin susceptibility is higher in ponies 
comparing with other strains of horses. Regular physical activity (exercise) increases insulin susceptibility 
in healthy horses. Insulin susceptibility is lesser in fat horses and ponies comparing with normal horses that
have more strong body conditions. Muscle glycogen is a major energy source during physical exercises 
and so glycogen depletion of muscles causes exhausting and poor performance in exercise. In horses, 
compare to human and other mammals, glycogen restoring after physical exercise is slower two or 
threefold. And 48 to 72 hours usually is needed to refill 50% of glycogen. Different factors can cause slow 
restore of glycogen such as: increasing of insulin susceptibility residuals, increasing of available carbohydrates
(hypercalcemia and hyperinsulinemia) that have adverse effect on glycogen synthesis. It should be mentioned 
that similar to human, food stores which increase available glucose and also hypo insulinemia after exercise 
have not any effect on muscle glycogen and glycogen restoring. IV injection of glucose accelerates glycogen 
refill compare to oral glucose. Increasing seed in ration stimulates glycogen restore.

Understanding horse nutrition requirements and appropriate feeding is an essential principle. Also, knowledge about effecting factors on food catching in horses is essential. Many feed manufacturers combine various grains and add additional vitamin and mineral supplements to create a complete premixed feed that is easy for owners to feed and of predictable nutritional quality. Some of these prepared feeds are manufactured in pelleted form, others retain the grains in their original form. In many cases molasses is used as a binder to keep down dust and for increased palatability. Grain mixes with added molasses are usually called "sweet feed" in the United States and "coarse mix" in the United Kingdom. Pelleted or extruded feeds may be easier to chew and result in less wasted feed. Horses generally eat pellets as easily as grain. However, pellets are also more expensive, and even "complete" rations do not eliminate the necessity for forage. Nowadays obesity among horses is an important principle and energy intake should be balanced to control this problem. We will discuss about different factors effecting on appetite and understanding food delectability for horses and the amount of food eating, and also hormonal regulation in food catching will be expressed.




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